2020/07/13  #029
The Golden Age of Hollywood/1920s-1930s (Part One) – The History of World Cinema (2)
ハリウッドの黄金期/戦前編 (前編) – 世界の映画史(2)

Mickey K. / ミッキーK

*Scroll to the end of the text for our video language lessons

1. Prologue

For the second entry in our series on the history of world cinema, I will write about the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood. For the purposes of this article, I will define the Golden Age as the period from the late 1920s, when cinema shifted from silent films (*1) to “talkies” (*2), through the peak years in the 1930s and 40s, and until its decline in the 50s and ultimate demise in the 60s. This timeline more or less corresponds with the years when the Hollywood studio system (*3) dominated movies—the era when movies were mass-produced and consumed as mass entertainment.

*1 A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no audible dialogue). See CINEMA & THEATRE #027 and #028 for more on silent films.

*2 A sound film, also known as a “talkie” or “talking picture” is a film with synchronized recorded sound.

*3 A movie studio is a motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that it uses to make films.

This week I will cover the pre-war years leading up to World War II. As talkies came into vogue, movie studios had many trials and tribulations ahead of them as they made the transition. Their growing pains coincided with social changes spurred by women’s suffrage and the Great Depression. In other words, they were tumultuous times—the setup for any great American story. The films that they made and the way in which they made them would come to define a large portion of cinema for decades to come.

1. プロローグ


※1 サイレント映画とは、同期された音声がない「無声映画」のことです。CINEMA & THEATRE #027#028で取り上げました。

※2 “トーキー”あるいは“サウンド映画”とは同期された音声がある「発声映画」のことです。

※3 映画ストゥディオとは、映画を製作する会社のことです。


2. American Cinema’s Transitional Era

The term “silent film” is a retronym, created after the fact to distinguish movies without sound from what were called “talkies” or “sound films”. The name seems to imply that the films were watched in complete silence, but that was frequently not the case. Nickelodeons (*4) often had a piano on hand so that musical accompaniment could be provided to heighten the emotion of films; some larger theaters had a pipe organ, and others, a small orchestra.

*4 Nickelodeons were small movie theaters with a screen in the back and around 200 hard wooden chairs for the audience. They were named after the fact that the price of admission was a nickel (five cents)

In theaters in European immigrant communities, intertitles were often translated into other languages like Italian or Russian, or in some cases a narrator would translate. The presence of a narrator was also something you’d see overseas in countries like France. In places like Mexico, audience members who were literate would sometimes explain what was happening aloud for the rest of the community.

In Japan, where traditional performing arts like kabuki (*5) and joruri (*6) already involved a narrator, performers who came to be called benshi provided live narration and voicework for silent films. They wrote their own scripts and performed them in sync with the video, and some became so popular that audience members would shout out their names. While they would dwindle in number after talkies became the norm, the tradition lives on today, with a handful of benshi even being invited to put on performances abroad. Music and narrative was an indispensable part of cinema even from the silent era.

*5 Kabuki is a classical Japanese dance-drama known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers.

*6 Joruri is classical Japanese puppet theater.

Silent films lacked sound not because of tastes but because of technological limitations. Even as far back as the late 19th century, Thomas Edison (*7) invented the Kinetoscope peephole viewer because he wanted a visual accompaniment to the phonograph (*8). (Read CINEMA & THEATRE #026 for more about Edison.) Unfortunately, the technology was not yet there for it to be a practical choice for cinema. Microphones weren’t sensitive enough; syncing up video and audio on separate players was not a simple task; movie theaters still lacked electronic amplification (*9)—meaning that audio couldn’t be played at a volume loud enough to fill a theater.

*7 Thomas Edison (1847-1931) was an American inventor and businessman considered to be America’s greatest inventor.

*8 The phonograph is a device for the recording and reproduction of sound, later called a gramophone and known as a record player since the 1940s.

*9 An audio power amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power electronic audio signals to a level that is high enough for driving loudspeakers or headphones.

In the 1910s, microphone technology and PA systems (*10) advanced to the point where these obstacles started to be overcome. That resulted in the development of several different sound-on-disc systems—where audio pre-recorded onto a vinyl record was played back in sync with film footage. Among the different systems, the only one that became widespread and achieved some commercial success was the Vitaphone, which was first introduced by Warner Brothers (*11) in 1926 with the film Don Juan. For several years after, Warner Brothers—and then later, other movie studios—released hybrid films that were part silent, part talkie. Don Juan was the first feature film to feature a soundtrack of sound effects and instrumental music. In 1927, The Jazz Singer became the first feature film to include a soundtrack of music, lip-synched singing, and approximately two minutes worth of recorded dialogue. The film was a massive box office success.

*10 A PA system is a public address system, comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers meant to increases the loudness of a human voice.

*11 Warner Brothers is an American entertainment conglomerate founded in 1923 by by brothers Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner.

The success of The Jazz Singer paved the way for more part-silent part-talkie films from Warner Brothers, and the studio grew rapidly. Meanwhile, the other major movie studios slowly came around to releasing their own hybrid films between 1928 and 1929. It was during this period that Walt Disney released Steamboat Willie (1928), considered to be the debut of Mickey Mouse and his girlfriend Minnie. Like The Jazz Singer, the sound element of many of these hybrid films largely consisted of songs and sound effects. In that way, they can be considered precursors to the genre of musicals that would conquer Hollywood in the coming decade. It’s also important to note that as the technology was still being experimented with and honed, the films from this period drew plenty of attention for their novelty, but today are not particularly remembered for their artistic merit.

Talkies did not become the industry standard overnight. It took time for the format to spread, for audiences to become accustomed to it. While silent film actors emphasized movement and facial expressions to convey story and emotions, talkies made it all about an actor’s voice. For audiences, there were many cases where an actor’s voice didn’t quite match up with the physical presence. In other cases, European-born actors suddenly became unable to pull off playing an American character. There were actors who managed to make the transition to talkies, but many others were left behind. Part of that was due to the fact that movie studios saw the transition as an opportunity to push out high-paid stars for younger talent they could shape and mold.

What’s more, because audio recording technology was still primitive, actors had to stand still and face in a specific direction so that the microphones would pick up their dialogue. Whereas silent films were characterized by dynamic movement, early sound films were stiff and motionless. There was a learning curve for directors too. While they could bark out direction at their actors on a silent film set, a sound film set required complete silence. Some directors were able to make the transition, while others were not so successful. It opened things up for a new crop of directors to rise to prominence. On the other side of the screen, audiences attending a sound film screening had to learn to say silent.

Another reason it took a while for talkies to overtake silent films was that movie theaters lacked the sound equipment to playback audio. Movie studios had to put a lot of money towards equipping their theaters with the proper sound system. Between 1928 and 1929, the number of theaters equipped to play sound grew from about 100 to 800; meanwhile there were over 22,000 silent film theaters across the U.S. For these reasons, for the first half of the 30s, the majority of Hollywood films were released in talkie versions and silent versions—a taxing process that was also expensive. As a result, most of Hollywood’s major movie studios went into debt. And then the Great Depression hit. (*12)

*12 The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

2. サイレント映画から“トーキー”へ


※4 ニッケルオデオンとは、1900年代初期に誕生した小さなスペースに座り心地の悪い木の椅子を200席くらい詰め込んだ庶民的な劇場です。入場料が“ニッケル”1枚(5セント)であることに名前が由来します。



※5 歌舞伎とは、大げさにも見えるような独特の動作やポーズが特徴の日本の古典芸能の1つです。

※6 浄瑠璃とは、三味線を伴奏楽器として太夫が詞章を語る劇場音楽のことです。

サイレント映画に同期された音声がなかったのは、嗜好の問題ではなく、技術の問題だったのです。そもそもアメリカのトーマス・エディソン(※7)は、蓄音機(※8)とセットとなるような映像投影機を創りたいと思い、1891年にのぞき眼鏡式映写機「キネトスコープ」を発明しました。(この話についてはCINEMA & THEATRE #026でより詳しく取り上げました。)ただ、当時は技術がまだ未熟で、俳優のセリフを拾えるだけのマイクロフォンの性能がなかったり、音楽と映像を完璧に同期させるのが難しかったりしていました。電子増幅機(アンプリファイアー)(※9)が設置される前の映画館では観客大勢が聞き取れるような音量で音声を再生することは不可能であったなど、いくつもの技術的な壁が存在しました。

※7 トーマス・エディソン(1847年〜1931年)は、アメリカの発明家、起業家です。

※8 蓄音機とは、録音機/再生装置のことで、エディソンが開発した蝋管式蓄音機から現在のレコード・プレイヤーの総称でもあります。

※9 アンプリファイアー、または「アンプ」とは、音響を表現した電気信号を増幅する機器である。


※10 PAシステムとは、「パブリック・アドレス・システム」のことで、電気的な音響拡声装置の総称です。

※11 ワーナー・ブラザーズとは、ワーナー兄弟が1923年に立ち上げたエンターテインメント・コングロマリットです。





※12 大恐慌とは、1930年代にアメリカを皮切りに世界的に起こった深刻な経済恐慌のことです。

3. The Hollywood Studio System

During the Golden Age of Hollywood, it is said that about 95% of America’s film market was controlled by one of the eight major movie studios. The model of film production, distribution, and exhibition dominated by a small number of major studios was called the studio system.

The studio system was created by Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. Many of them ran theaters catering to immigrant communities on the East Coast of the U.S. in the early 1900s. They were quick to recognize the commercial potential of cinema, and gradually expanded into film production in order to secure a steady stream of new films to screen in their theaters. In the 1910s, they gradually shifted their base of operations to Hollywood on the West Coast. Hollywood was ideally suited for film production: warm weather and abundant sunshine with a wide range of environments over a small area, including mountains and forests, desert and the seashore, and ranches. The studios were also driven by a desire to get away from the iron fist of Thomas Edison (read CINEMA & THEATRE #026 for more on Edison). On the West Coast, the Jewish studio heads found freedom. While World War I was going on in Europe, they kept churning out films and buying up movie theater chains across the country.

Of the eight major movie studios, five were vertically integrated (*13) conglomerates (*14): Paramount Pictures (*15), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)(*16), the aforementioned Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox (then known as Fox Film Corporation) (*17), and RKO Radio Pictures (*18). The other three were similarly organized but did not own major movie theater chains: Universal Pictures (*19), Columbia Pictures (*20), and United Artists (*21). It’s interesting to note that all eight of these studios were either founded or co-founded by Jewish businessmen.

*13 In other words, they owned a production studio, distribution division, and substantial theater chains.

*14 A conglomerate is a combination of multiple business entities operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group.

*15 Paramount Pictures is an American movie studio founded in 1912 by Adolph Zukor.

*16 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer is an American movie studio founded in 1924 when Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and Louis B. Mayer Pictures.

*17 20th Century Fox is an American movie studio formed from the merger of the Fox Film Corporation and the original Twentieth Century Pictures in 1935.

*18 RKO Pictures was an American movie studio that was founded in 1928. It ceased production in 1957 after an era of decline under the control of Howard Hughes.

*19 Universal Studios is an American movie studio that was founded in 1912. It is the oldest surviving movie studio in the U.S.

*20 Columbia Pictures is an American movie studio that was founded in 1924. Today it is a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group.

*21 United Artists is an American movie studio that was founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks.

These major studios—especially the “big five”—were “dream factories” that essentially mass-produced films in order to keep their movie theater chains packed. Each studio had its stable of producers, directors, actors, screenwriters, and other technicians, who were often under long-term contracts. The studios practiced strict division of labor among departments and teams; this allowed them to work efficiently on several film projects concurrently. During the Golden Age of Hollywood, it is said the studios together produced 600 films a year.

The studio system also led to the filmmaking process being streamlined into an assembly line of sorts, with rules and conventions established for camera positioning, lighting, sound, and editing—where it all came together into a coherent whole. As the studios developed the cinematic language of Hollywood, they also developed their own individual house styles. The well-oiled machine also meant that the majority of films were formulaic and fell neatly into certain genres like musical, western (*22), screwball comedy (*23), and gangster film (*24). Nonetheless, the American public was swept up in Hollywood’s spell.

*22 Western is a genre of fiction set in the second half of the 19th century in the “Old West”. Its stories primarily center on the lives of cowboys and gunfighters.

*23 Screwball comedy is a subgenre of the romantic comedy known for satirizing the traditional love story.

*24 A gangster film is a film belonging to a genre that focuses on gangs and organized crime.

3. ハリウッドのストゥディオ・システム


このストゥディオ・システムを作ったのが、主に東ヨーロッパからやってきたユダヤ系移民の実業家でした。彼らは1900年代初期の頃に東海岸北部で劇場を経営し、主に移民コミュニティーを客層としていました。その中でいち早く映画の商業的可能性に着目し、劇場で上映する作品が欲しくて映画製作に乗り出すようになりました。1910年代に入ると、彼らは映画製作の拠点を西海岸南部のハリウッドに移しました。日当たりの良い温厚な気候は映画製作に向いており、周辺に山や森、砂漠や海岸、牧場があることからロケイションの観点からもハリウッドは最適な場所だったのです。また、東海岸からできる限り離れることで、映画産業を牛耳ろうとしていたトーマス・エディソンの告訴から逃れるという大きな別の目的もありました。(このことについてはCINEMA & THEATRE #026で紹介しました。)自由を得たユダヤ系移民の映画ストゥディオは、ヨーロッパで第一次世界大戦が繰り広げられる中、映画製作を進め、一方で映画館のチェーンを買収していき、急成長を遂げました。


※13 垂直統合型とは、各社が製作ストゥディオに加え、作品を配給する部署、上映する子会社も抱えていたということです。

*14 コングロマリットとは、複合企業のことです。

※15 パラマウント映画は、1912年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。

※16 メトロ・ゴールドウィン・メイヤー(MGM) は、1924年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。

※17 20世紀フォックス映画は、1934年にフォックス・フィルムと20世紀映画が合併したことによって設立された映画会社です。

※18 RKOは、1928年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。1957年に倒産しました。

※19 ユニバーサル・スタジオは、1912年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。

※19 ユニバーサル・スタジオは、1912年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。

※21 ユナイテッド・アーティスツは、1919年に設立されたアメリカの映画会社です。



※22 ウェスタンとは「西部劇」のことで、19世紀後半のアメリカの西部開拓時代を舞台とした小説、テレヴィ、映画のことです。

※23 スクリューボール・コメディとは、1930年代初頭から1940年代にかけてハリウッドで人気を博したコメディ映画のサブジャンルです。

※24 ギャングスター映画とは、アメリカの犯罪組織やマフィアなどを題材にした映画のことです。

4. The Hays Code

As the major movie studios churned out mainstream commercial films in the 1930s, Hollywood would increasingly be dictated by the tastes of the market.

When talkies were just coming into vogue, the studios produced many films that could be characterized as proto-musicals. Musicals, which mix song and dialogue, were the perfect bridge between silent films—which were based on exaggerated physical acting—and talkies—which relied on more realistic acting. So many musicals were produced that audiences grew tired, and it is said some theaters started advertising “Not a musical” to keep their patrons interested.

Another genre that became popular with the advent of the talkie was the gangster film. In a 2010 article for the New York Times, film critic Dave Kehr wrote that “they flourished when sound introduced the sensational elements of chattering machine guns, screaming tires and, most important, the varied timbres of contemporary American speech, bursting with vivid idioms and filtered through every accent known to man.” (“When Hollywood Learned to Talk, Sing and Dance”)America at the time was still under Prohibition (*25), and there was interest among the general public in bootlegging and the criminal underworld—especially figures like the notorious gangster Al Capone (*26). The gangster film genre was especially popular among young male moviegoers.

*25 Prohibition in the U.S. was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

*26 Al Capone (1899-1947) was an American gangster and businessman in Chicago who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era.

Although Hollywood is most associated with escapist fantasies, its films always reflect the times and the state of society: gangster films in the 1930s, war films in the 1940s-1960s, counterculture films in the 1960s-1970s, etc. The early 1930s were the peak years of the Great Depression, and as a result many films were cynical portrayals depicting financial hardship and anti-authority and anti-capitalist sentiment. Hollywood also quickly latched on to the fact that movies somehow involving the seven deadly sins (*27) were a hit with audiences. They purposely gave films dangerous sounding titles, emphasized the physical sexuality of women, and depicted adultery. The passage of the 19th Amendment had finally given women the right to vote gradually leading to significant changes in lifestyle and culture. So-called flappers smoked in public and were sexually liberated. The more risqué films being put out by Hollywood were especially popular among young female moviegoers.

*27 According to Christian teachings, the seven deadly sins are pride, greed, wrath, envy, lust, gluttony, and sloth.

While all of this was happening, there were voices around America arguig that Hollywood was becoming a cesspool for moral deprevity. From the earliest days of cinema, the Catholic church and other organizations actively tried to prevent the screening of morally questionable films. Then in the early 1920s, a string of scandals would further cement Hollywood’s reputation as sin city. In 1921, the popular silent film star and comedian Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle (*28) was arrested and charged with murder and rape; in 1922 the famous silent film director William Desmond Taylor (*29) was found murdered in his home in Los Angeles; the decade also saw the death of a number of actors from drug overdoses. These scandals led to a frenzy of sensationalist newspaper reports, which further damaged Hollywood’s reputation.

*28 Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (1887-1933) was an American silent film actor and comedian that was one of the highest paid actors in Hollywood during his time.

*29 William Desmond Taylor (1872-1922) was an Irish-American film director and actor that was active during the 1910s and early 1920s.

In response, Hollywood turned to the Presbyterian (*30) deacon and former U.S. Postmaster General William H. Hays (*31), appointing him chairman of the newly formed Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (*32) in the hopes that he could clean up their image. Whereas many religious groups favored federal censorship of the movies, Hays attempted to spell out a set of moral guidelines for Hollywood to apply and self-censor its content. His early efforts were largely unsuccessful. Then in 1929, Catholic layman Martin Quigley—the publisher of a trade magazine for independent movie exhibitors—Jesuit priest Father Daniel A. Lord, and a few others authored a set of guidelines that spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for films made for U.S. audiences. Their guidelines turned out to be just what Hays had been looking for. The rules came to be known as “The Production Code” and “The Hays Code”.

*30 The Presbyterian church is governed by lay elders and adheres to modified forms of Calvinism.

*31 William H. Hays (1879-1954) was a United States politician, chairman of the Republican National Committee, U.S. Postmaster General, and the first chairman of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA).

*32 The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America is known today as the Motion Picture Association of America, or officially the Motion Picture Association.

Here is an outline of the Code taken from Wikipedia:
The Production Code enumerated three "General Principles":
1. No picture shall be produced that will lower the moral standards of those who see it. Hence the sympathy of the audience should never be thrown to the side of crime, wrongdoing, evil or sin.
2. Correct standards of life, subject only to the requirements of drama and entertainment, shall be presented.
3. Law, natural or human, shall not be ridiculed, nor shall sympathy be created for its violation.

Specific restrictions were spelled out as "Particular Applications" of these principles:
• Nudity and suggestive dances were prohibited.
• The ridicule of religion was forbidden, and ministers of religion were not to be represented as comic characters or villains.
• The depiction of illegal drug use was forbidden, as well as the use of liquor, "when not required by the plot or for proper characterization."
• Methods of crime (e.g. safe-cracking, arson, smuggling) were not to be explicitly presented.
• References to sex perversions such as homosexuality and venereal disease were forbidden, as were depictions of childbirth.
• The language section banned various words and phrases that were considered to be offensive.
• Murder scenes had to be filmed in a way that would discourage imitations in real life, and brutal killings could not be shown in detail.
• "Revenge in modern times" was not to be justified.
• The sanctity of marriage and the home had to be upheld.
• "Pictures shall not infer that low forms of sex relationship are the accepted or common thing."
• Adultery and illicit sex, although recognized as sometimes necessary to the plot, could not be explicit or justified and were not supposed to be presented as an attractive option.
• Portrayals of miscegenation were forbidden.
• "Scenes of Passion" were not to be introduced when not essential to the plot.
• "Excessive and lustful kissing" was to be avoided, along with any other treatment that might "stimulate the lower and baser element."
• The flag of the United States was to be treated respectfully, and the people and history of other nations were to be presented "fairly."
• "Vulgarity", defined as "low, disgusting, unpleasant, though not necessarily evil, subjects" must be "subject to the dictates of good taste."
• Capital punishment, "third-degree methods", cruelty to children and animals, prostitution and surgical operations were to be handled with similar sensitivity.


In order to ensure that their films would be shown, the movie studios begrudgingly accepted the terms and agreed to self-censor. However, in practice, the studios flouted the code; being in the midst of the Great Depression, Hollywood had more pressing matters at hand. At the time, Hays and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America did not have the authority to enforce the Code, and could only try to reason and plead with the studios. However, in 1934, when Catholic groups threatened to boycott immoral Hollywood films, and major Catholic financiers like Bank of America reduced funding, the studios gave the MPPDA the full authority to enforce the Code. The Production Code would have a great effect on shaping Hollywood films until it was ultimately abandoned in the 60s.

(Read part two here)

4. “プリ・コード”のハリウッドとヘイズ・コードの誕生



“トーキー”の誕生によってもう1つ定着したジャンルが、いわゆるギャングスター映画です。2010年1月のニュー・ヨーク・タイムズの記事(「When Hollywood Learned to Talk, Sing and Dance」)では、機関銃の音、キーキーときしむ逃走用の車のタイヤ、ギャングスターの独特な言葉遣いが、サウンド映画に向いていたのだとしています。当時のアメリカは禁酒法(※25)の時代であり、アメリカ国民は密造酒の製造や販売や、シカゴを拠点に犯罪組織を運営していたギャング・ボスのアル・カポネ(※26)など“暗黒街の顔”に高い関心を持っていたこも、こうした映画が作られた背景にあったのでしょう。こういったジャンルは特に若い男性の間で人気でした。

※25 アメリカにおける禁酒法は、1920年から1933年まで施行され、消費のためのアルコールの製造、販売、輸送を全面的に禁止した法律でした。

※26 アル・カポネ(1899年〜1947年)は、禁酒法時代のシカゴで、高級ホテルを根城に密造酒製造・販売、売春業、賭博業の犯罪組織を運営したギャングのボスです


※27 7つの大罪とは、傲慢、強欲、嫉妬、憤怒、色欲、暴食、怠惰のことです。

一方で、こういった風潮がハリウッドの道徳的腐敗を起こしていると問題視する声もどんどん高まっていきました。そもそも映画というものが誕生した早い段階から、カトリック教会や各種団体は、道徳に反するような作品の上映を禁止しようと活動をしていました。更に1920年代にはハリウッドの“sin city”(罪深き街)というイメージが広がるスキャンダルが連続的に起こりました。1921年には人気喜劇俳優ロスコー・アーバックル(※28)が強姦殺人容疑で起訴、1922年にはサイレント映画の有名監督であったウィリアム・デズモンド・テイラー(※29)の殺害、その他複数人の俳優がドラッグの過剰摂取で死亡し、こういった事件は新聞によって更にセンセイショナルに取り上げられ、悪評を呼びました。

※28 ロスコー・アーバックル(1887年〜1933年)は、サイレント映画時代を代表するアメリカの喜劇俳優です。

※29 ウィリアム・デズモンド・テイラー(1872年〜1922年)は、サイレント映画時代を代表するアメリカの映画監督、俳優です。


※30 長老教会派は、キリスト教のプロテスタント、カルヴァン派の教派です。

※31 ウィリアム・H・ヘイズ(1879年〜1954年)は、郵政公社総裁などを勤めた共和党の政治家でした。

*32 アメリカ映画製作配給業者協会

1. 冒涜的な言葉("hell," "damn," "Gawd,"など)をいかなるつづりであっても題名・もしくはセリフに使うこと
2. 好色もしくは挑発的なヌード(シルエットのみも含む)または作品内のほかの登場人物による好色なアピール
3. 薬物の違法取引
4. 性的倒錯
5. 白人奴隷を扱った取引
6. 異人種間混交(特に白人と黒人が性的関係を結ぶこと)
7. 性衛生学および性病ネタ
8. 出産シーン(シルエットのみの場合も含む)
9. 子どもの性器露出シーン
10. 聖職者を笑いものにすること
11. 人種・国家・宗教に対する悪意を持った攻撃

1. 旗
2. 国際関係(他国の宗教・歴史・習慣・著名人・一般人を悪く描かぬように気を付けること)
3. 放火行為
4. 火器の使用
5. 窃盗、強盗、金庫破り、鉱山・列車および建造物の爆破など(あまりにも描写が細かいと、障がい者に影響を与えるおそれがあるため)
6. 残酷なシーンなど、観客に恐怖を与える場面
7. 殺人の手口の描写(方法問わず)
8. 密輸の手口の描写
9. 警察による拷問の手法
10. 絞首刑・電気椅子による処刑シーン
11. 犯罪者への同情
12. 公人・公共物に対する姿勢
13. 教唆
14. 動物及び児童虐待
15. 動物や人間に対して焼き鏝を押し付ける
16. 女性を商品として扱うこと
17. 強姦(未遂も含む)
18. 初夜
19. 男女が同じベッドに入ること
20. 少女による意図的な誘惑
21. 結婚の習慣
22. 手術シーン
23. 薬物の使用
24. 法の執行もしくはそれに携わる者を扱うこと(タイトルのみも含む)
25. 過激もしくは好色なキス(特に一方が犯罪者である場合は要注意)



(後編は こちら)

#CinemaHistory #AmericanCinema #Hollywood
#SilentFilms #Talkies #WarnerBrothers
#ParamountPictures #MetroGoldwynMayer #20thCenturyFox
#RKO #UniversalStudios #ColumbiaPictures
#UnitedArtists #WaltDisneyCompany #AlCapone

#映画史 #アメリカ映画 #ハリウッド
#サイレント映画 #トーキー #ワーナーブラザーズ
#パラマウント映画 #メトロゴールドウィンメイヤー
#20世紀フォックス映画 #RKO #ユニバーサルスタジオ
#コロンビア映画 #ユナイテッドアーティスツ
#アルカポネ #ヘイズコード


Spoken Readings for Japanese Study
The Golden Age of Hollywood/1920s-1930s (Part One) – The History of World Cinema (2)
ハリウッドの黄金期/戦前編 (前編) – 世界の映画史(2)


The Golden Age of Hollywood/1920s-1930s (Part One) – The History of World Cinema (2)
ハリウッドの黄金期/戦前編 (前編) – 世界の映画史(2)